Python Print Markdown

  1. ```Python str = 'This is block level code' print(str) ``` Using Markup Tags Python str = 'This is a block level code' print(str) Using Markdown, you can get the syntax highlighting of code if programming language name is mentioned after the '```' three ticks and the example is given below.
  2. If you’re the type that likes to live on the edge, you may want to keep up with the latest additions and bug fixes in the repository between releases. Python-Markdown is maintained in a Git repository on GitHub.com. To get a copy of Python-Markdown from the repository do.

Cmd Markdown 编辑阅读器,支持实时同步预览,区分写作和阅读模式,支持在线存储,分享文稿网址。. The Python support in R Markdown and knitr is based on the reticulate package (Ushey, Allaire, and Tang 2020), and one important feature of this package is that it allows two-way communication between Python and R. For example, you may access or create Python. Rich is a Python library for rich text and beautiful formatting in the terminal.

In the previous article we looked at what static sites are, and how they work.

Now we will look at how to convert a single markdown file into an HTML file.

The conversion process

This diagram from the previous article shows the basic process for converting a set of markdown files into the required HTML files for a complete website:

This time we will look in more detail at what is involved in converting a single page of markdown into the corresponding HTML file:

Here is an example markdown file, test.md:

This actually isn't a pure markdown file. The top part of the file is meta-data for the page, in a format called yaml. Many static site generators use a similar system. The yaml is contained between the two '---' markers. The rest of the file (after the second '---') is the markdown content of the file. But for brevity we will call the entire file a markdown file.

Converting this page to HTML actually involves 4 separate tasks:

  • Split the file into yaml and markdown parts
  • Extract the meta-data from the YAML.
  • Convert the markdown to an HTML fragment (the page content).
  • Combine the meta-data and page content with the HTML template to create a complete HTML file.

Fortunately, if we use the right Python libraries, each of these steps is very easy.

Splitting the file

This part is fairly standard Python. We read the markdown file in, line by line, and create two strings, ym that contains the yaml text, and md that contains the markdown text.

Python allows us to treat a text file as a sequence of lines of text, that we can loop through using a for loop.

The first loop discards strings until we find the first '---'. The second loop reads all the strings until the next '---'. Those are the yaml_lines. Finally, all the remaining lines after the second '---' are the markdown data.

We join all the yaml_lines to form a string ym. We join all the lines of markdown data to form the string md.

Parsing the yaml data

We will use the Python yaml library to parse the yaml data, like this:

This parses a block of yaml text and creates a dictionary with the result. Here is what it prints:

This is the same data as we had on the test.md file, but now in the form of a Python dictionary.

Notice that the tags element has a list of values. That is because the yaml header uses a syntax for tags that allows for multiple values.

Converting the markdown data

Here we convert the second part of the file, the markdown data, into an html fragment, like this:

We are using the markdown library to do the conversion. This takes a markdown format string and returns an html string. Based on the markdown code above, the html content string will be:

As you can see it correctly marked up the bold and italic text, hyperlink, and image. The markdown method has several extensions that can be added, for example to provide syntax highlighting, but we aren't using those here.

The output is an html fragment. It places each paragraph inside its own paragraph tags, but it doesn't provide higher level tags such as a body tag. It is assumed that the html fragment will be place within a full html document (which we will do next).

Creating the full html

We create our final html using a template like this:

This template is just a basic html page. For a real website, you would probably want to use something more sophisticated, maybe a responsive template and some CSS styling.

But the basic method is the same. You use a full html page template, but with placeholders for variable content such as the title of the page, the author's name, and the main content itself.

The placeholders are enclosed in double curly brackets, for example {{title}}. We use the pystache module to substitute real values for the placeholders to create the final html. Here is the code:

The render function accepts the html template, plus a dictionary that maps the template names on to their values.

Notice that the info dictionary we are using comes straight from the yaml parser. It already contains entries for the title, author and date. The trick here is to make sure that each tag in the html template exactly matches the equivalent field in the yaml header. That way, pystache will be looking for the same tags that the yaml parser stored.

Well that isn't quite true. The info dictionary doesn't yet have an entry for content, because the content comes from the markdown. So we add and extra element to the dictionary, called 'content', containing the processed markdown content.

The other thing to notice is that we use triple brackets for content - {{{content}}}. The reason for this is that the content is raw html data:

Python markdown tutorial
  • For {{value}}, pystache renders the value assuming it is text that you want to display. If it contains html characters such as < it will use escape characters so the the symbol is displayed as a < in the browser. That is what you would want in the page title, for instance.
  • For {{{value}}}, pystache renders the text unaltered, so it the text contains <p>, it will cause a paragraph break. This is what you want for the page content, which does include paragraph breaks.

Putting it all together

This has taken a bit of explaining, but if you actually look at the code to convert the yaml plus markdown into a final html page, it is remarkably simple:

In the next article we will look at how to build a complete site.

Overview

Nearly all Markdown applications support the basic syntax outlined in John Gruber’s original design document. There are minor variations and discrepancies between Markdown processors — those are noted inline wherever possible.

Headings

To create a heading, add number signs (#) in front of a word or phrase. The number of number signs you use should correspond to the heading level. For example, to create a heading level three (<h3>), use three number signs (e.g., ### My Header).

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
# Heading level 1<h1>Heading level 1</h1>
## Heading level 2<h2>Heading level 2</h2>

Heading level 2

### Heading level 3<h3>Heading level 3</h3>

Heading level 3

#### Heading level 4<h4>Heading level 4</h4>

Heading level 4

##### Heading level 5<h5>Heading level 5</h5>
Heading level 5
###### Heading level 6<h6>Heading level 6</h6>
Heading level 6

Alternate Syntax

Alternatively, on the line below the text, add any number of characters for heading level 1 or -- characters for heading level 2.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
Heading level 1
<h1>Heading level 1</h1>
Heading level 2
---------------
<h2>Heading level 2</h2>

Heading level 2

Heading Best Practices

Markdown applications don’t agree on how to handle a missing space between the number signs (#) and the heading name. For compatibility, always put a space between the number signs and the heading name.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
# Here's a Heading
#Here's a Heading

Paragraphs

To create paragraphs, use a blank line to separate one or more lines of text.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
I really like using Markdown.
I think I'll use it to format all of my documents from now on.
<p>I really like using Markdown.</p>
<p>I think I'll use it to format all of my documents from now on.</p>

I really like using Markdown.

I think I'll use it to format all of my documents from now on.

Paragraph Best Practices

Unless the paragraph is in a list, don’t indent paragraphs with spaces or tabs.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
Don't put tabs or spaces in front of your paragraphs.
Keep lines left-aligned like this.
This can result in unexpected formatting problems.
Don't add tabs or spaces in front of paragraphs.

Line Breaks

To create a line break (<br>), end a line with two or more spaces, and then type return.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
This is the first line.
And this is the second line.
<p>This is the first line.<br>
And this is the second line.</p>

This is the first line.
And this is the second line.

Line Break Best Practices

You can use two or more spaces (commonly referred to as “trailing whitespace”) for line breaks in nearly every Markdown application, but it’s controversial. It’s hard to see trailing whitespace in an editor, and many people accidentally or intentionally put two spaces after every sentence. For this reason, you may want to use something other than trailing whitespace for line breaks. Fortunately, there is another option supported by nearly every Markdown application: the <br> HTML tag.

For compatibility, use trailing white space or the <br> HTML tag at the end of the line.

There are two other options I don’t recommend using. CommonMark and a few other lightweight markup languages let you type a backslash () at the end of the line, but not all Markdown applications support this, so it isn’t a great option from a compatibility perspective. And at least a couple lightweight markup languages don’t require anything at the end of the line — just type return and they’ll create a line break.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
First line with two spaces after.
And the next line.
First line with the HTML tag after.<br>
And the next line.
First line with a backslash after.
And the next line.
First line with nothing after.
And the next line.

Emphasis

You can add emphasis by making text bold or italic.

Bold

To bold text, add two asterisks or underscores before and after a word or phrase. To bold the middle of a word for emphasis, add two asterisks without spaces around the letters.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
I just love **bold text**.I just love <strong>bold text</strong>.I just love bold text.
I just love __bold text__.I just love <strong>bold text</strong>.I just love bold text.
Love**is**boldLove<strong>is</strong>boldLoveisbold

Bold Best Practices

Markdown applications don’t agree on how to handle underscores in the middle of a word. For compatibility, use asterisks to bold the middle of a word for emphasis.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
Love**is**bold Love__is__bold

Italic

To italicize text, add one asterisk or underscore before and after a word or phrase. To italicize the middle of a word for emphasis, add one asterisk without spaces around the letters.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
Italicized text is the *cat's meow*.Italicized text is the <em>cat's meow</em>.Italicized text is the cat’s meow.
Italicized text is the _cat's meow_.Italicized text is the <em>cat's meow</em>.Italicized text is the cat’s meow.
A*cat*meowA<em>cat</em>meowAcatmeow

Italic Best Practices

Markdown applications don’t agree on how to handle underscores in the middle of a word. For compatibility, use asterisks to italicize the middle of a word for emphasis.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
A*cat*meow A_cat_meow

Bold and Italic

To emphasize text with bold and italics at the same time, add three asterisks or underscores before and after a word or phrase. To bold and italicize the middle of a word for emphasis, add three asterisks without spaces around the letters.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
This text is ***really important***.This text is <strong><em>really important</em></strong>.This text is really important.
This text is ___really important___.This text is <strong><em>really important</em></strong>.This text is really important.
This text is __*really important*__.This text is <strong><em>really important</em></strong>.This text is really important.
This text is **_really important_**.This text is <strong><em>really important</em></strong>.This text is really important.
This is really***very***important text.This is really<strong><em>very</em></strong>important text.This is reallyveryimportant text.

Bold and Italic Best Practices

Markdown applications don’t agree on how to handle underscores in the middle of a word. For compatibility, use asterisks to bold and italicize the middle of a word for emphasis.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
This is really***very***important text. This is really___very___important text.

Blockquotes

To create a blockquote, add a > in front of a paragraph.

The rendered output looks like this:

Dorothy followed her through many of the beautiful rooms in her castle.

Blockquotes with Multiple Paragraphs

Blockquotes can contain multiple paragraphs. Add a > on the blank lines between the paragraphs.

The rendered output looks like this:

Dorothy followed her through many of the beautiful rooms in her castle.

The Witch bade her clean the pots and kettles and sweep the floor and keep the fire fed with wood.

Nested Blockquotes

Blockquotes can be nested. Add a >> in front of the paragraph you want to nest.

The rendered output looks like this:

Dorothy followed her through many of the beautiful rooms in her castle.

The Witch bade her clean the pots and kettles and sweep the floor and keep the fire fed with wood.

Blockquotes with Other Elements

Blockquotes can contain other Markdown formatted elements. Not all elements can be used — you’ll need to experiment to see which ones work.

The rendered output looks like this:

The quarterly results look great!

  • Revenue was off the chart.
  • Profits were higher than ever.

Everything is going according to plan.

Lists

You can organize items into ordered and unordered lists.

Ordered Lists

To create an ordered list, add line items with numbers followed by periods. The numbers don’t have to be in numerical order, but the list should start with the number one.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
1. First item
2. Second item
3. Third item
4. Fourth item
<ol>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ol>
  1. First item
  2. Second item
  3. Third item
  4. Fourth item
1. First item
1. Second item
1. Third item
1. Fourth item
<ol>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ol>
  1. First item
  2. Second item
  3. Third item
  4. Fourth item
1. First item
8. Second item
3. Third item
5. Fourth item
<ol>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ol>
  1. First item
  2. Second item
  3. Third item
  4. Fourth item
1. First item
2. Second item
3. Third item
1. Indented item
2. Indented item
4. Fourth item
<ol>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item
<ol>
<li>Indented item</li>
<li>Indented item</li>
</ol>
</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ol>
  1. First item
  2. Second item
  3. Third item
    1. Indented item
    2. Indented item
  4. Fourth item

Ordered List Best Practices

CommonMark and a few other lightweight markup languages let you use a parenthesis ()) as a delimiter (e.g., 1) First item), but not all Markdown applications support this, so it isn’t a great option from a compatibility perspective. For compatibility, use periods only.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
1. First item
2. Second item
1) First item
2) Second item

Unordered Lists

To create an unordered list, add dashes (-), asterisks (*), or plus signs (+) in front of line items. Indent one or more items to create a nested list.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
- First item
- Second item
- Third item
- Fourth item
<ul>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ul>
  • First item
  • Second item
  • Third item
  • Fourth item
* First item
* Second item
* Third item
* Fourth item
<ul>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ul>
  • First item
  • Second item
  • Third item
  • Fourth item
+ First item
+ Second item
+ Third item
+ Fourth item
<ul>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ul>
  • First item
  • Second item
  • Third item
  • Fourth item
- First item
- Second item
- Third item
- Indented item
- Indented item
- Fourth item
<ul>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
<li>Third item
<ul>
<li>Indented item</li>
<li>Indented item</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li>Fourth item</li>
</ul>
  • First item
  • Second item
  • Third item
    • Indented item
    • Indented item
  • Fourth item

Starting Unordered List Items With Numbers

If you need to start an unordered list item with a number followed by a period, you can use a backslash () to escape the period.

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
- 1968. A great year!
- I think 1969 was second best.
<ul>
<li>1968. A great year!</li>
<li>I think 1969 was second best.</li>
</ul>
  • 1968. A great year!
  • I think 1969 was second best.

Unordered List Best Practices

Markdown applications don’t agree on how to handle different delimiters in the same list. For compatibility, don’t mix and match delimiters in the same list — pick one and stick with it.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
- First item
- Second item
- Third item
- Fourth item
+ First item
* Second item
- Third item
+ Fourth item

Adding Elements in Lists

To add another element in a list while preserving the continuity of the list, indent the element four spaces or one tab, as shown in the following examples.

Paragraphs

The rendered output looks like this:

  • This is the first list item.
  • Here’s the second list item.

    I need to add another paragraph below the second list item.

  • And here’s the third list item.

Blockquotes

The rendered output looks like this:

  • This is the first list item.
  • Here’s the second list item.

    A blockquote would look great below the second list item.

  • And here’s the third list item.

Code Blocks

Code blocks are normally indented four spaces or one tab. When they’re in a list, indent them eight spaces or two tabs.

The rendered output looks like this:

  1. Open the file.
  2. Find the following code block on line 21:

  3. Update the title to match the name of your website.

Images

The rendered output looks like this:

  1. Open the file containing the Linux mascot.
  2. Marvel at its beauty.

  3. Close the file.

Lists

You can nest an unordered list in an ordered list, or vice versa.

The rendered output looks like this:

  1. First item
  2. Second item
  3. Third item
    • Indented item
    • Indented item
  4. Fourth item

Code

To denote a word or phrase as code, enclose it in backticks (`).

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
At the command prompt, type `nano`.At the command prompt, type <code>nano</code>. At the command prompt, type nano.

Escaping Backticks

If the word or phrase you want to denote as code includes one or more backticks, you can escape it by enclosing the word or phrase in double backticks (``).

MarkdownHTMLRendered Output
``Use `code` in your Markdown file.``<code>Use `code` in your Markdown file.</code>Use `code` in your Markdown file.

Code Blocks

To create code blocks, indent every line of the block by at least four spaces or one tab.

The rendered output looks like this:

Note: To create code blocks without indenting lines, use fenced code blocks.

Horizontal Rules

To create a horizontal rule, use three or more asterisks (***), dashes (---), or underscores (___) on a line by themselves.

The rendered output of all three looks identical:

Horizontal Rule Best Practices

For compatibility, put blank lines before and after horizontal rules.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
Try to put a blank line before...
---
...and after a horizontal rule.
Without blank lines, this would be a heading.
---
Don't do this!

Links

To create a link, enclose the link text in brackets (e.g., [Duck Duck Go]) and then follow it immediately with the URL in parentheses (e.g., (https://duckduckgo.com)).

The rendered output looks like this:

My favorite search engine is Duck Duck Go.

Adding Titles

You can optionally add a title for a link. This will appear as a tooltip when the user hovers over the link. To add a title, enclose it in parentheses after the URL.

The rendered output looks like this:

My favorite search engine is Duck Duck Go.

URLs and Email Addresses

To quickly turn a URL or email address into a link, enclose it in angle brackets.

The rendered output looks like this:

https://www.markdownguide.org
[email protected]

Formatting Links

To emphasize links, add asterisks before and after the brackets and parentheses. To denote links as code, add backticks in the brackets.

The rendered output looks like this:

I love supporting the EFF.
This is the Markdown Guide.
See the section on code.

Reference-style Links

Reference-style links are a special kind of link that make URLs easier to display and read in Markdown. Reference-style links are constructed in two parts: the part you keep inline with your text and the part you store somewhere else in the file to keep the text easy to read.

Formatting the First Part of the Link

The first part of a reference-style link is formatted with two sets of brackets. The first set of brackets surrounds the text that should appear linked. The second set of brackets displays a label used to point to the link you’re storing elsewhere in your document.

Although not required, you can include a space between the first and second set of brackets. The label in the second set of brackets is not case sensitive and can include letters, numbers, spaces, or punctuation.

This means the following example formats are roughly equivalent for the first part of the link:

  • [hobbit-hole][1]
  • [hobbit-hole] [1]

Formatting the Second Part of the Link

The second part of a reference-style link is formatted with the following attributes:

  1. The label, in brackets, followed immediately by a colon and at least one space (e.g., [label]: ).
  2. The URL for the link, which you can optionally enclose in angle brackets.
  3. The optional title for the link, which you can enclose in double quotes, single quotes, or parentheses.

This means the following example formats are all roughly equivalent for the second part of the link:

  • [1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbit#Lifestyle
  • [1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbit#Lifestyle 'Hobbit lifestyles'
  • [1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbit#Lifestyle 'Hobbit lifestyles'
  • [1]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbit#Lifestyle (Hobbit lifestyles)
  • [1]: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbit#Lifestyle> 'Hobbit lifestyles'
  • [1]: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbit#Lifestyle> 'Hobbit lifestyles'
  • [1]: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbit#Lifestyle> (Hobbit lifestyles)

You can place this second part of the link anywhere in your Markdown document. Some people place them immediately after the paragraph in which they appear while other people place them at the end of the document (like endnotes or footnotes).

An Example Putting the Parts Together

Say you add a URL as a standard URL link to a paragraph and it looks like this in Markdown:

Though it may point to interesting additional information, the URL as displayed really doesn’t add much to the existing raw text other than making it harder to read. To fix that, you could format the URL like this instead:

In both instances above, the rendered output would be identical:

In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit. Not a nasty, dirty, wet hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry, bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat: it was a hobbit-hole, and that means comfort.

and the HTML for the link would be:

Link Best Practices

Markdown applications don’t agree on how to handle spaces in the middle of a URL. For compatibility, try to URL encode any spaces with %20.

✅ Do this❌ Don't do this
[link](https://www.example.com/my%20great%20page) [link](https://www.example.com/my great page)

Images

To add an image, add an exclamation mark (!), followed by alt text in brackets, and the path or URL to the image asset in parentheses. You can optionally add a title after the URL in the parentheses.

The rendered output looks like this:

Linking Images

To add a link to an image, enclose the Markdown for the image in brackets, and then add the link in parentheses.

The rendered output looks like this:

Escaping Characters

To display a literal character that would otherwise be used to format text in a Markdown document, add a backslash () in front of the character.

The rendered output looks like this:

* Without the backslash, this would be a bullet in an unordered list.

Characters You Can Escape

You can use a backslash to escape the following characters.

CharacterName
backslash
`backtick (see also escaping backticks in code)
*asterisk
_underscore
{ }curly braces
[ ]brackets
< >angle brackets
( )parentheses
#pound sign
+plus sign
-minus sign (hyphen)
.dot
!exclamation mark
pipe (see also escaping pipe in tables)

HTML

Many Markdown applications allow you to use HTML tags in Markdown-formatted text. This is helpful if you prefer certain HTML tags to Markdown syntax. For example, some people find it easier to use HTML tags for images. Using HTML is also helpful when you need to change the attributes of an element, like specifying the color of text or changing the width of an image.

To use HTML, place the tags in the text of your Markdown-formatted file.

Python Markdown Pdf

The rendered output looks like this:

This word is bold. This word is italic.

HTML Best Practices

For security reasons, not all Markdown applications support HTML in Markdown documents. When in doubt, check your Markdown application’s documentation. Some applications support only a subset of HTML tags.

Use blank lines to separate block-level HTML elements like <div>, <table>, <pre>, and <p> from the surrounding content. Try not to indent the tags with tabs or spaces — that can interfere with the formatting.

You can’t use Markdown syntax inside block-level HTML tags. For example, <p>italic and **bold**</p> won’t work.

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Python Print Markdown Function

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